Hukum Mengucapkan Talak Tiga Sekaligus

Penanya dan pembaca yang budiman, semoga semakin bertambah luas wawasan keislamannya dan toleran. Terdapat perbedaan pendapat (ikhtilaf) di antara ulama mengenai masalah talak tiga yang diucapkan sekaligus. Mencermati berbagai literatur fiqih di antaranya al-Majmû‘ karya Imam al-Nawawî (631-676 H.), Bidâyat al-Mujtahid karya Ibnur Rusyd (w. 565 H), dan al-Fiqh al-Islâmî wa-Adillatuh karya Syekh Wahbah al-Zuhailî, tentang masalah ini dapat dikelompokkan menjadi empat macam. 
Pertama, pendapat yang menghukumi talak tiga yang diucapkan sekaligus adalah jatuh talak tiga. Ini pendapat Empat Imam Mazhab (Hanafi, Maliki, Syafi‘i, Hanbalî), Syiah Zaidiyyah dalam pendapat yang masyhur, dan suatu riwayat Imamiyah, serta pendapat Ibnu Hazm Az-Zhâhirî. Pendapat ini manqûl (diambil) dari pendapat jumhur sahabat, di antaranya Khulafâ’ur Rasyidun (selain Abu Bakar RA), Ibnu ‘Umar, Ibnu ‘Amar, Ibnu ‘Abbâs, Ibn Mas’ûd, Abû Hurairah, dan para tabi’in.
Kedua, pendapat yang menyatakan bahwa talak tiga sekaligus hanya jatuh talak satu. Ini pendapat Dâwud Az-Zhâhirî (mazhab Zhahiriyah selain Ibnu Hazm), Ibnu Ishâq, Ibnu Taimiyyah, dan Ibnu Qayyim Al-Jauziyyah, Syiah Zaidiyah dalam satu riwayat, serta sebagian besar Syiah Imamiyah, seperti At-Thûsî (385-460 H). Pendapat ini, yang awalnya pendapat Abu Bakar RA, dipilih dan diberlakukan dalam undang-undang Mesir tahun 1929, dan undang-undang Suriah tentang Hukum Keluarga (Qânûn al-Ahwâl al-Syakhshiyyah) Pasal 91-92. 
Ketiga, pendapat yang menafsil (memerinci), yakni memisahkan antara istri yang sudah digauli oleh suami yang menalaknya dan istri yang belum digauli oleh suaminya. Talak tiga yang diucapkan sekaligus terhadap istri yang sudah digaulinya, maka jatuh talak tiga, tetapi terhadap istri yang belum digaulinya, maka jatuh talak satu (talak raj’i). 
Pandangan ketiga ini adalah pendapat murid-murid Ibnu ‘Abbâs RA di antaranya ‘Atha’, Sa‘îd bin Jubair, Abûs Sya‘tsâ’, ‘Amar bin Dînâr, yang merupakan mazhab Ishâq bin Râhawiyah. Dalilnya antara lain, HR Abû Dâwud: ”Taukah kamu bahwa bila seseorang menalak istrinya tiga kali sebelum ia berhubungan badan dengannya mereka menjadikan (menghukumi)nya talak satu?” (Lihat An-Nawawi, Kitâb Al-Majmû‘, [Jedah, Maktabah Al-Irsyâd: tanpa tahun], juz XVIII, halaman 275). 
Keempat, pendapat yang menyatakan bahwa talak tiga sekaligus tidaklah jatuh talak sama sekali (laysa bisyai’), sebab merupakan bid‘ah muharramah (bid’ah yang diharamkan), tertolak dan batal, sebab menyalahi prosedur Al-Qur’an dan As-Sunnah tentang talak. Ini pendapat Al-Hajâj bin Arthâh, Muhammad bin Ishâq, dan Syiah Imâmiyah dalam riwayat yang râjih (unggul). 
Berikut di antara referensi tentang jatuhnya talak tiga tersebut: 
وإيقاع الثلاث للإجماع الذي انعقد في عهد عمر على ذلك ولا يحفظ أن أحدا في عهد عمر خالفه في واحدة منهما. ثم قال: فالمخالف بعد هذا الإجماع مُـنـابذٌ لـه، والجمهور على عدم اعتبار مَن أحدث الاختلاف بعد الاتفاق.اهـ
Artinya, “Jatuhnya talak tiga-dalam kasus mengucapkan talak tiga sekaligus-itu karena ijmak yang terjadi pada masa pemerintahan ‘Umar bin ‘Affân, dan tidak tercatat adanya seseorang pada masa beliau menentang pendapatnya tersebut… Maka orang yang menyalahi atau menentang setelah ada ijma’ ini berarti menentang pendapat beliau, dan Jumhur ulama memandang tidak ada penilaian terhadap orang yang membuat perbedaan pendapat setelah terjadi persepakatan tentang hukum tersebut.” (Ibnu Hajar Al-‘Asqalânî, Syarh Shahîhil Bukhârî [Beirut, Dârul Ma‘rifah: 1379 H], juz X, halaman 364). 
Bahkan alangkah baiknya, terutama putusan hakim, mengikuti pendapat yang meringankan (takhfîf), sebagaimana yang telah diberlakukan dalam undang-undang di Mesir dan Suriah, sehingga bisa menjadi hukum yang lebih kuat (al-hukm al-aqwâ) untuk diterapkan, yang menetapkan talak tiga sekaligus adalah jatuh talak satu. 
Mengambil atau memilih pendapat yang meringankan (takhfîf) ini, tidak berarti menentang putusan ‘Umar bin Khathab r.a. sebagaimana pula ditetapkan empat imam mazhab, karena persoalan norma hukum dikembalikan kepada (pertimbangan) aspek perubahan hukum sebab adanya perubahan ‘urf/adat-istiadat dan kondisi manusia. 
Menerapkan pendapat yang takhfîf ini dimaksudkan untuk memberikan kemudahan (taisîr) bagi manusia, dan menjaga keutuhan hubungan suami istri, serta melindungi kemaslahatan anak-anak, karena ucapan talak tiga sekaligus itu biasanya untuk menakut-nakuti, dan jelas prinsip fiqih itu bersifat solutif (problem solving) dan mengembalikan relasi perkawinan (ruju’). Wallahu a’lam.   
Demikian jawaban ini, agar dapat dipahami dengan baik, dan kita terhindar dari menjatuhkan talak. Kami terbuka atas masukan pembaca yang budiman. 
Wallahul muwaffiq ila aqwamit thariq Wassalamu alaikum wa rahmatulllahi wa barakatuh 
(Ustadz Ahmad Ali MD)
Sumber: https://islam.nu.or.id/post/read/114465/hukum-mengucapkan-talak-tiga-sekaligus

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